Disclaimer: I’m not an InfoSec (information security) person by trade, so this is just a personal compilation of entry-level DIY InfoSec “home improvements” I’ve done in order to protect my data and minimize the amount of data I share with third parties.

“If you are not paying for it,
you’re not the customer;
you’re the product being sold.”
Andrew Lewis


I recently went to an event in which the speaker talked about the data we each share with Facebook and what characteristics Facebook infers about us users. As the discussion opened up, a lot of wider questions about ad blocking, malware, encrypted instant messaging, etc. started popping up. As I happened to be one of the few tech people at the event, I ended up answering a fair share of these diverse InfoSec related questions - as best as I could.

After the event, it really dawned on me that a lot of non-tech people are just as concerned with the integrity of their data and the privacy of their communications, but have a hard time finding an entry point into the surprisingly complex world of InfoSec. So, in order to do my small part in improving the state of personal online privacy and security, here is a quick overview of the steps I have taken myself to do just that.


Before we dive into how we can improve our privacy and security, we first have to define a few concepts related to these topics in order to reduce the amount of potential confusion:

  • Backup: a backup, or the process of backing up, refers to the copying and archiving of computer data so it may be used to restore the original after a data loss event.

  • Encryption: encryption is the process of encoding messages or information in such a way that only authorized parties can access it.

  • Data breach: a data breach is the intentional or unintentional release of secure or private/confidential information to an untrusted environment.

  • Malware: short for malicious software, is any software used to disrupt computer or mobile operations, gather sensitive information, gain access to private computer systems, or display unwanted advertising.

  • Phishing: Phishing is the attempt to obtain sensitive information such as usernames, passwords, and credit card details (and, indirectly, money), often for malicious reasons, by disguising as a trustworthy entity in an electronic communication.

  • Two-factor authentication: Two-factor authentication (also known as 2FA) is a method of confirming a user’s claimed identity by utilizing a combination of two different components.

  • Password manager: A password manager is an app that helps a user store and organize passwords. Password managers usually store passwords encrypted, requiring the user to create a master password: a single, ideally very strong password which grants the user access to their entire password database.

  • VPN: A VPN or virtual private network extends a private network across a public network, and enables users to send and receive data across shared or public networks as if their computing devices were directly connected to the private network.

With these concepts defined, we are ready to go through different steps we can take to improve our privacy and security.

Two-factor authentication

Two-factor authentication works by requiring you to supply a second piece of information when logging in to a website, e.g. besides entering your password for the given website, you may also have to enter a one-time code sent to your smart phone - usually via SMS or via an Authenticator app that you install on your phone.

By enabling two-factor authentication it becomes harder for a hacker to gain access to your data on a particular website, e.g. using a phising attack, as they not only need to know your password but they also have to gain physical access to the device you use for the second authentication step, e.g. your smart phone.

Two-factor authentication is available for many common services like Facebook, Twitter, Github, Google, and what else the kids use these days.

Hard drive encryption

On macOS, turn on FileVault found in System preferences -> Security & Privacy -> FileVault. This essentially encrypts all your data on your hard drive and requires your user password to decrypt, which happens automatically behind the scenes when you log in.

I presume that there also exists tools for Windows and Linux to do this, but I am unfamiliar with them and thus will not recommend anything here.


You can backup your data in several ways, here we make the distinction between local and remote backup.

Local backup

It can be a good idea to keep a local physical backup of your data in case your machine gets stolen, gets damaged beyond repair, or if you are the victim of ransomware.

One way is to find an old SD card or USB stick and then use a disk utility tool, on macOS go to Applications -> Utilities -> Disk Utility, to reformat the SD card with a file system format that encrypts the content of the card/stick, such that a password is needed in order to read the content of the card/stick.

Note: Always remember to choose a sufficiently strong password, i.e. something that mixes lower- and uppercase letters, numbers and special characters and has a good length; in these days 12 characters seems to be a minimum length.

Remote backup

Besides the occasional local backup, it is convenient these days to use a remote backup/storage service as Dropbox or Google Drive which keeps your files in sync and backed up in the cloud. Unfortunately, there are a few issues with many of these cloud storage providers:

  1. While your data is encrypted in the storage provider’s cloud, they often have just as much access to your data as you do - unless stated otherwise, which is a clear privacy issue, and this can often lead to your data being sold and/or profiled for the sake of targeted ads,
  2. because these services can read your data, this means that your data can also end up in a data breach, if the storage service is somehow compromised in a successful attack by hackers.

However, there a few of these cloud storage providers that use something called end-to-end encryption which is often stated as zero-knowledge authentication or similar. Without going into too much detail, it basically means that you alone know the password needed to decrypt - and thereby read - the data stored in their cloud, but this also has the disadvantage that if you forget your password, they can do absolutely nothing to help you recover your data.

One such cloud storage provider is Tresorit, which has a nice user interface and allows two-factor authentication. Another example is Spideroak.

Private messaging

Just as your cloud provider is usually able to access your data, so is it also the case for the services you use for messaging, e.g. Facebook messenger, Google Hangouts, Skype, Snapchat, etc., which comes with the same downsides: poor privacy, risk of profiling, and vulnerable to data breaches. To avoid this, you can use a secure messaging app like Signal which uses an end-to-end encryption protocol such that it never has access to your unencrypted communications. Furthermore, it is also open source which means that it can be audited by the public thus ensuring that the app does what it claims.

Data breaches

As stated previously, a data breach is when a large piece of private data is unintentionally leaked, usually these leaks consists of information like email address, username and the hashed password (not as bad as your clear text password) for millions of users. This sort of leak has happened to giant players like Adobe, LinkedIn, Yahoo, Dropbox, and tumblr over the years and it can be hard to guard against if you are using any service where you are not in total control of your data. One thing you can do is to subscribe to the service Have i been pwned?, which is a website that will send you an email if your email address is present in any type of major leak. If this should happen, you should change your password for the given website/service, and hope your data has not been compromised yet.

Tracking and profiling

While it is - sadly - obvious that giant websites like Facebook, YouTube, Google, etc. are tracking and profiling you in order to serve you targeted ads and what not, they actually tend to give you quite a lot of control of what data they store, if you bother to spend time looking it up. I will not put any links here, as they tend to change once in a while, but a quick search like “What does {Google, Facebook, Evil Corp} know about you” will usually point you in the right direction.


Malware comes in many different shapes and sizes, but the way it finds its way to your computer is usually through malicious files being downloaded that pretends to be innocent, or malicious websites that manages to exploit security holes in your web browser.


Right now, antivirus does not seem worth the trouble on macOS, so probably better to skip this part.

Web browsers

Today, using a modern and secure browser is the first defense against malicious websites. However, browsers may also collect data about you thus invading your privacy.

Personally, I have just switched to Brave, which is an open source browser that blocks harmful advertisements, uses HTTPS for all connections and blocks tracking cookies and pixels. It is just as easy to use as Google Chrome or Firefox but has been designed with security and privacy in mind from the beginning, which is also reflected in the preferences menu where you can fine tune the privacy and security aspects of your browsing even further. Lastly, it also has a very limited set of available browser plugins, as suspect browser plugins have recently been used to infect machines with malware on several occasions.

Search engine

Just as the browser can record your browsing history, so can your search engine record your search history. Generally, there are few alternatives to good old Google, but if you do not want Google snooping in your browsing history you can use DuckDuckGo, which I have personally been using for the last few months, with very few hiccups.

Passwords managers

As described in the concepts section, a password manager allows you to only remember one strong password which you then use to log into the password manager and then it remembers - and often generates - all the other passwords you need.

Personally, I use Lastpass with 2-factor authentication enabled and configured my Brave browser to use Lastpass as the password manager when confronted with a password input form on a website.

Because Lastpass uses end-to-end encryption like the zero-knowledge cloud storage services we discussed earlier, there should be no extra risk in storing your encrypted data in their cloud rather than locally. If you would rather have a local password manager, you can use 1password or KeePass.


As mentioned in the concepts section, a virtual private network allows you to communicate privately across a public network. What this means is that a VPN creates a secure, encrypted connection, which can be thought of as a tunnel, between your computer and a server operated by the VPN service. Such a mechanism obscures to outsiders which websites you are visiting, what you search for, etc., as all they can see is that you are sending request to this VPN service. However, now that you are sending all your data through this VPN service, it is very important that you can trust that this VPN is not also storing and selling your data for profit. Two VPN services which claim to care about their users privacy and has gotten good reviews are TunnelBear and NordVPN, of which I have myself installed the latter just recently.

A few steps further

Besides the topics mentioned above, there are a lot of other things you can do to get more control of your privacy and security:

  • Minimize your online footprint by deleting users on social networks that just waste your time and/or think about what data you choose to put online,
  • switch to an open source operating system like Arch Linux or similar,
  • use an encrypted email service like Protonmail or add GPG to your existing email service, or
  • do as Henry David Thoreau and go live in a cabin in the woods.


In this post, I have tried to cover the basics of what you as a private citizen can do to help keep your data private and secure without making any major sacrifices in terms of convenience. If you felt that I did not cover some of the above topics in great enough detail, you can easily find more information using your favorite search engine (DuckDuckGo) and a few well placed keywords in your search query.

Before we leave, remember the following:

  • Do not click on suspicious links on the Internet,
  • be aware of phising attempts and other suspicious activity, and
  • put some tape over your web cam.